上小學與幼兒園孩子所需能力大不同,做好準備,小一新生不怕不怕!~獨家授權親子天下嚴選文章

/治療師雙寶阿木 吳怡璇

開學啦!孩子要從幼兒園進入小一生活,不論是生活與學習都有許多明顯不同,你和孩子是否都感到忐忑不安呢? 還是已經適應得很好了呢?

爸媽們,只要您願意花點時間,陪伴孩子有所準備,將能把心中焦慮降低許多,讓孩子開啟愉悅的國小學習生活。

 

國小與幼兒園,不管在環境、課程與學習上都有明顯的差異,那孩子到底需要具備那些相對應的能力,來面對小一生活呢?

【生活方面的不同】

 

幼兒園孩子時間觀念較弱,上學可以8點半才姍姍來遲,老師要求較不嚴格。

而國小早上7點-7:30點就得到校,到校通常就有課程活動,孩子相對要有時間觀念,並準時就寢,為自己負責。

幼兒園會集合孩子一起上廁所,並備有衛生紙,老師還會協助如廁清潔。上課想上廁所也較有彈性,孩子無需自我察覺。

而國小需要孩子自我提醒下課才能如廁,到廁所前要自己準備衛生紙,並自己完成如廁清潔步驟。

 

培養孩子所需能力

培養早睡早起作息:

美國睡眠醫學會建議,兒童夜晚要睡足8-9小時才算足夠,因此需提早就寢時間,才能在早上7:30以前到校不遲到!

學會自己用餐:

鼓勵兒童早餐盡可能在家吃,並且有效率的完成,才能在匆忙的早晨不遲到。晚餐讓孩子學習獨立,有效率地完成所有步驟,從添飯、夾菜、進食、擦拭到洗碗,有利於在校用餐的獨立性。

學會如廁和清潔步驟:

訓練孩子獨立上廁所的能力,從記得自己帶衛生紙、使用蹲式馬桶、完成擦拭屁股動作、洗手等流程與步驟。另外,還有用餐完必須自己獨力完成刷牙。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

認識時間、負責規劃時間:

首先,要學會在生活作息中,學會鐘錶的時間。接著與孩子討論規劃,放學回家後的時間安排,從寫作業、整理、運動、遊戲和就寢時間,慢慢能從規律中學習自我提醒。

 

【上課形式不同】:

 

幼兒園以主題教學模式,大部分課程融合遊戲和實體操做,會以玩中學方式進行,因此能讓孩子起來活動操作,課程較活潑,而且輕鬆沒壓力。

而國小課程則以分科目進行,大多仍以靜態課程為主,強調語言和書面,如聽、說、讀、寫能力。而每堂上課時間較長約40分鐘,下課只有10-15分,每天有4-7堂課,相對非常的緊湊。

 

培養孩子所需能力:

培養持續事物的專注力:

在家除了作業之外,可提供如畫圖、積木、閱讀..等活動,練習持續30-40分鐘以上的能力。可擺上碼表,讓孩子具體感受10分、20分和30分鐘。當然,活動不包括看電視電玩的持續時間。

提供固定體能活動時間:

國小偏向靜態課程,因此每日傍晚建議可提供戶外1個小時的運動時間,調整大腦學習狀態、培養身體的持續力。

培養閱讀習慣:

建立每日繪本或雜誌的閱讀習慣,能讓孩子對注音與國字更加熟練與自在運用,幫助國語的學習效率和專注。

培養生活運算能力:

引導孩子在生活中10以內的簡單運算,購物的金額和錢幣使用能力,對數學學習有相當幫助。

 

【師生關係不同】:

幼兒園老師重點放在生活訓練,較有耐心照料提醒生活自理,比較像是媽媽的角色,而且接孩子下課時,通常能與老師聊聊溝通孩子狀態,關係較為密切。

而國小老師的重心放在教學,有教學的進度與壓力,重視班級紀律、作業學業的完成和學習,與老師溝通時間也需要特別預告與挑選。

 

培養孩子所需能力:

建立生活自理獨立性:國小之後,讓孩子嘗試自己進行洗碗、擦桌子、用餐、選擇衣物、洗澡等獨立性。

訓練聽指令執行的能力:

在學校老師交代的事物,需要孩子自己能專心聽懂並執行,因此在家可多培養孩子能聽到指令定執行完成的能力,可利用作家事等活動,如倒垃圾、洗碗等活動。

培養孩子敘述表達能力:

父母回家多關心傾聽孩子在校的情形,鼓勵孩子能完整地敘述表達,若有特殊事件,也能從孩子敘述過程了解後,再與老師進一步討論。

學習整理收納的能力:

引導孩子利用夾層、資料夾來分類收納書包能力,每天睡前整理好書包,並確認作業完成度,隔天才能輕鬆的上學。

 

希望在大人的陪伴下,孩子都能有個愉悅的小一新生活!

本文章同步刊登親子天下嚴選文章~

 

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